5G-EMIT: 5G Emission Monitoring Platform

The deployment of 5G and beyond networks will by necessity involve the installation of new base station equipment to support the requirements of next generation mobile services. In a scenario where there are already many sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMFs), including overlapping 2G/3G/4G technologies of competing network operators, there is growing concern that network planning, design and deployment operations will become increasingly complex.

The assessment of RF-EMF compliance has always been a major challenge for the deployment of new cellular communication technologies, as it requires matching the regulatory framework to new technical needs. In Europe, the regulations proposed by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are used as framework for the deployment of new radio technologies. This expert group is formally recognised by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) and collaborates with several bodies, including the EU commission.

5G networks are significantly different from those of previous generations due to their service-based architecture model. The conventional methods used to assess radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) emissions of 2G, 3G and 4G base stations are not suitable for 5G. This is due in particular to 5G’s use of active antenna technologies, such as Massive MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) with precise beamforming and Time Division Duplex (TDD). As a consequence, the result of conventional exposure assessment approaches are significantly overestimated.

Ensuring consistency between the technical requirements of 5G and current RF-EMF regulations is of major importance in Europe since any discrepancies could restrict or even prevent the deployment of these technologies. There is therefore a challenge in finding and implementing new assessment methodologies and network planning solutions to ensure an optimised deployment of 5G infrastructures in accordance with current regulations.

In this context, 5G-EMIT proposed and validate an operational methodology for assessing the RF-EMF emissions produced by 5G technologies. This exercise was done through a decision-support system presented as an online monitoring platform, aiming to facilitate the deployment, compliance, and sustainability of 5G in Luxembourg. A range of complementary aspects was investigated, in order to consider scientific (e.g., new algorithms for evaluating emissions, simulations/emulation) and technical (software, hardware) aspects, as well as standards and regulatory frameworks (e.g., eligible EMF exposure limits). The outcome was supported by EMF measurements of the relevant mobile frequency bands, taken at various sites around known antennas.

Project funding:
This work has been funded by the Department of Media, Telecommunications and Digital Policy of the Luxembourg Government.

 Data and papers

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor while driving in LOS and NLOS to several antennas through Luxembourg-Hollerich and Luxembourg Center, Luxembourg (2022-08-25) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7841846

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor while walking in LOS and NLOS to two antennas through the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2022-10-17) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842237

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor in a building behind the window in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2022-10-19) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842306

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor in a building behind the window in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2022-11-08) (1.0.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842371

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor while walking in LOS and NLOS to two antennas through the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2022-11-10) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842415

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor in a building behind the window in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-01-19) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842449

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a IMEC/University of Ghent sensor in a building behind the window in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-01-31) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842491

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor close to a window of a building in LOS to two antennas in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-02-07) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842525

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a IMEC/University of Ghent Sensor on the terrace of a building in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-02-07) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842575

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor while walking in LOS and NLOS to two antennas through the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-02-15) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842625

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a IMEC/University of Ghent sensor on the terrace of a building in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-02-21) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842723

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a IMEC/University of Ghent sensor on the terrace of a building in LOS to one antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-03-07) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842745

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a IMEC/University of Ghent sensor on the terrace of a building in NLOS to any antenna in the Esch-Belval Area, Luxembourg (2023-03-20) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842791

U. Roth, S. Faye, L. Selmane, J. C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, M. Picard, N. Asadi. (2023). 5G-EMIT Project: EMF measurements of 2G/3G/4G/5G frequency bands captured with a MVG EME Spy Evolution sensor while walking in LOS and NLOS to several antennas through Luxembourg Center, Luxembourg (2023-04-06) (1.0.0) [Data set]. Zenodo.

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7842830

S. Faye, R. Camino, G. Rziga, P. Sarvari, N. Al-Naffakh, J.C. Estrada-Jiménez, E. Pardo, D. Khadraoui, "A Survey on EMF-Aware Mobile Network Planning," in IEEE Access, vol. 11, pp. 85927-85950, 2023, doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2023.3297098

 Additional information

More information about 5G-EMIT:

- https://www.list.lu/en/research/project/5g-emit
- https://www.list.lu/en/news/lists-5g-decision-support-system-for-luxembourg/
 

Team members:

- Sébastien Faye (PI)

- Uwe Roth

- Lamia Selmane                          

- Juan Carlos Estrada-Jiménez

- Enric Pardo

- Philippe Pinheiro           

- Michel Picard

- Niloofar Asadi

 DOI

 https://doi.org/10.57828/mrmr-y403